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Biomecánica Principios y Aplicaciones

Hard tissue, mineralized tissue, and calcified tissue are often used as synonyms for bone when describing the structure and properties of bone or tooth. The hard is self-evident in comparison with all other mammalian tissues, which often are referred to as soft tissues. Use of the terms mineralized and calcified arises from the fact that, in addition to the principle protein, collagen, and other proteins, glycoproteins, and protein-polysaccherides, comprising about 50% of the volume, the major constituent of bone is a calcium phosphate (thus the term calcified) in the form of a crystalline carbonate apatite (similar to naturally occurring minerals, thus the term mineralized). Irrespective of its biological function, bone is one of the most interesting materials known in terms of structure–property relationships. Bone is an anisotropic, heterogeneous, inhomogeneous, nonlinear, thermorheologically complex viscoelastic material. It exhibits electromechanical effects, presumed to be due to streaming potentials, both in vivo and in vitro when wet.
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